Related Services

  • The New York State Continuum of Services:

    Related Services

    Related Services are developmental or corrective, and include other supportive services that are required to assist a child with a disability so that he or she benefits from an instructional program. Your child’s related services may change from pre-school to school-age as his or her needs change with age. Related Services may be the only special education service given to your child, or they may be provided along with other special education services, such as special class services. The following related services might be recommended:

    • Counseling — These services are designed to improve social and emotional functioning in the areas of appropriate school behavior, discipline, self-control, conflict resolution if your child is experiencing difficulty interacting appropriately with adults or peers, withdrawal or acting out, low self-esteem or poor coping skills that significantly interfere with learning. If your child requires services from a particular provider (e.g., guidance counselor, school psychologist or social worker), it must be outlined in the IEP.

    • Hearing Education Services — Services designed to provide instruction in speech, reading, auditory training and language development to enhance the growth of receptive/expressive communication skills.

    • Speech/Language Therapy — These services help in the way your child understands sounds and language (called auditory processing), with articulation or phonological skills, comprehension, use of syntax, pragmatics, voice production and fluency.

    • Occupational Therapy — This will help your child maintain, improve or restore adaptive and functional skills, including fine motor skills and oral motor skills in all educational activities.

    • Orientation and Mobility Services — These services are designed to improve your child’s understanding of spatial and environmental concepts and us of information he or she receives through the senses (e.g., sound, temperature, vibrations) for establishing, maintaining and regaining orientation and line of travel. They are provided to students with visual impairments.

    • Physical Therapy — Uses activities to maintain, improve or restore your child’s functioning, including gross motor development, ambulation, balance and coordination in various settings, including but not limited to the classroom, gym, bathroom, playground, staircase and transitions between classes.

    • School Health Services — A school nurse or paraprofessional provides services that are designed to address your child’s specific health needs, as documented by his or her physician, to ensure a safe educational environment.

    • Vision Education Services — These services are designed to provide instruction for your child if he or she is visually impaired. They utilize Braille, Nemeth Code, large print, optical and non-optical low-vision devices and other skills necessary to attain academic, social, vocational and life adjustment skills, literacy and acquisition of information using tactile, visual and auditory strategies

    At the time of consent for evaluation, you will be asked to sign a release of records form that authorizes the CSE to obtain reports from outside agencies or medical reports from physicians that may be important to your child’s evaluation. While you are not required to sign this release form, the district asks that you consider allowing the CSE to have access to records from outside agencies or physicians that may help the CSE members better understand your child’s needs.

    All evaluations are written and placed in an official file that is kept in your child’s public school and at the Office of special education. The information in the file is confidential and will not be given to any outside agency or individual without your consent or unless a court orders the release of your child’s records. Only school staff who work with your child have access to these records.

    Access to Record

    You should receive a copy of any evaluations or reports that will be considered at CSE meetings for your child. Additionally, you have the right to request copies of any evaluations or reports that have been written and placed in your child’s file. This can be done by making a request to the school or the special education office.  Sometimes parents disagree with statements made in their child’s record. If this is the case, you can request, in writing, to meet with the school or the director of special education to discuss the area(s) of disagreement.

    Plan for Graduation: High School Diploma Options and Post-Secondary Planning

    Preparing for high school graduation requires that students and parents know the requirements and take all necessary steps to support students in achieving their goals. New York State provides students with the following diploma options:

    • Advanced Regents Diploma
    • Regents Diploma
    • Local Diploma
    • C-DOS Credential

    You must receive written notice prior to your child's graduating from high school with a Regents or Local diploma to inform you that your child is no longer eligible to receive a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) after graduation.

    Transition Services and Post-Secondary Options

    Transition Services are a coordinated set of activities that assist students moving from school to post-school activities, including post-secondary education, vocational education, competitive employment, continuing and adult education, adult services, independent living or community participation. The coordinated set of activities must be individualized for your child and will take into account his or her strengths, preferences and interests. The goal is to establish a communication process that focuses on the student’s strengths, interests and abilities. This information is the planning foundation so that students are well prepared for the movement from secondary school and have as many options as possible once they leave.

    When your child turns 15 years old, Transition Services must be part of his or her IEP. This will be updated every year after that as part of the annual review CSE meeting.

    Transition Services may focus on the following areas:

    • Instructional activities  that will be provided to your child to help him or her achieve the stated transition outcome;
    • The development of employment and other post-school adult living skills;
    • Community integration;
    • The development of daily living skills for students who require this kind of assistance.

    Transition Services aim to meet the following criteria:

    • They are designed to be results-oriented;
    • They help focus staff on improving academic and functional achievement of students and are based on the individual student needs;
    • They take into account the student’s strengths, preferences and interests;
    • They are integrated services that touch upon various aspects of the school experience and include responsibilities shared by multiple members of the school community.

    Your child and, if you provide written consent, a representative of the agencies likely to be responsible for providing or paying for Transition Services must be invited to the IEP meeting to discuss Transition Services. At this meeting to discuss Transition Services, the following will be considered:

    • Regardless of whether your child attends the CSE meeting, the CSE must ensure that his or her preferences and interests are considered; and
    • Regardless of whether an agency invited a representative, steps to involve the agency in the planning of any transition.

    View APW Graduation Requirements here.

    What Should Be Discussed at the Last Transition Meeting Before the Student Graduates

    The discussion at the last CSE meeting before the student graduates should include, among other things:

    • Plans for schooling/training, living arrangements, travel and finances;
    • Paperwork and documents necessary for post-secondary plans;
    • Whether student and/or parent/guardian has copies of all the paperwork and documents;
    • Whether the student and/or parent/guardian has names, addresses, phone numbers and names of contacts at the various agencies.

    Additionally, schools are required to provide a Student Exit Summary for:

    • All students with disabilities attending public school and non-public schools; and
    • Students with disabilities for whom special education services will terminate in the current year because he or she will receive a Regents or Local Diploma or C-DOS Credential; or
    • Students who will reach the age of 21.

    The Summary should provide a meaningful picture of your child’s strengths, abilities, skills, functional and academic levels, needs, limitations, necessary accommodations and recommendations that will support his or her goals after leaving Altmar Parish Williamstown Central School District. The Summary will assist your child in establishing eligibility for reasonable accommodations and supports in post-secondary education, the workplace and the community.

    Any related services that are recommended for your child will be indicated on the IEP. The IEP provides the number of times a week or month your child should receive the service (this is called the “frequency”) and the length of the session (this is called the “duration”), the maximum group size (if your child can be provided services in a group), the language in which the service must be provided and whether the service will be provided in your child’s classroom or in a separate room outside of the classroom (this is the “location”).

    Integrated Co-Teaching (ICT)

    Integrated Co-Teaching (ICT) classrooms include students with disabilities and non-disabled students educated together with two teachers, a general education teacher and a special education teacher, who work together and collaborate throughout the day. These teachers work together to adapt and modify instruction for your child and make sure the entire class has access to the general education curriculum.

    Children receiving ICT may also receive related services, assistive technology, teaching aide or assistant services or other supplementary aids and services necessary. While ICT may be provided on a full-time or part-time basis, part-time is more typically recommended in departmentalized school programs where classes change on a subject-by-subject basis. If it is provided part-time, that must be specifically indicated on your child’s IEP, along with the number of periods each day he or she will receive the services clearly stated. The area of instruction (for example, mathematics) for which your child will be receiving ICT must also be indicated.

    Special Class Services

    Special Class Services are services provided for children with disabilities in a self-contained classroom. They serve children whose needs cannot be met within the general education classroom, even with Special Education Teacher Support Services, Related Services or participation in a ICT class. Special Class Services may be provided on a full-time or part-time basis.

    In self-contained special classes, students must be grouped by similarity of educational needs. Classes may contain students with the same disability or with different disabilities as long as they have similar levels of academic and learning characteristics, levels of social development, levels of physical development and management needs.

    Special classes offer different levels of staffing intensity depending upon your child’s academic and/or management needs. This is called the Staffing Ratio. These classes may range from six to a maximum of fifteen students. Staffing for special classes includes one special education teacher and may have up to four teaching assistants. If your child requires more intensive and constant adult supervision in order to learn, he or she will be recommended for a more intensive student-to-staff ratio. The CSE will determine your child’s staffing ratio and indicate it clearly in his or her IEP.

    New York State Education Department Approved Non-Public Schools (Residential)

    Residential schools are settings that provide intensive programming in the classroom and a structured living environment on school grounds on a 24-hour-a-day basis. This program is for children whose educational needs are so intensive as to require 24-hour attention. Residential schools that are approved by the New York State Education Department are located in New York State and in other nearby states. If it is determined that a residential setting is appropriate, the district is required to first consider in-state residential settings before considering an out-of-state school.

    Home and Hospital Instruction

    These are educational services provided to children with disabilities who are unable to attend school for an extended period of time. They are typically only provided until the child is able to return to school or, in the case of hospital instruction, until he or she is discharged from the hospital. These services might be recommended for a child with severe medical or emotional problems that prevent him or her from attending school until the problems are resolved. They might also be recommended for a child who is waiting for an approved, non-public school that is not yet available to him or her.

    Your child is entitled to a minimum of two hours a day of Home and Hospital Instruction for high school students and one hour a day for all other students. The number of hours, length of session and number of times a week are determined by the CSE and must be based on your child’s individual needs.

    Supplementary Aids and Services

    These are services and other supports that are provided in both general education classes or other settings that are more restrictive. Supplementary Aids and Services may include, but are not limited to, the following materials, devices and adaptations:

    • Functional Behavioral Assessment — A functional behavioral assessment is conducted for any student whose behavior impedes his or her learning or the learning of other students. It is the process of determining the purpose that a behavior serves for a student and is accomplished by careful assessment of the situations that lead to certain behaviors and the consequences that result. The results of the functional behavioral assessment are incorporated into a behavioral intervention plan, which provides intervention strategies to address the behavior.

    • Curriculum Accommodations — Accommodations change how a student accesses information and demonstrates that he/she has learned the information. They may include the use of audiotapes instead of books, large-print books, Braille materials, use of a calculator for math or use of a word processor instead of handwriting.

    • Curriculum Modifications — Modifications change the way the curriculum is delivered and the instructional level, but the subject matter itself remains the same. Examples of modifications include redesigning the size or focus of the assignment.

    • Individualized Supports — Examples of supports include rephrasing of questions and instructions, additional time to move between classes, special seating arrangements, testing accommodations such as questions being read or re-read aloud, additional time, etc., curricular aids such as high-lighted reading materials, main idea summaries, organizational aids, pre written notes or study guides.

    Supplementary Aids and Services may also include the services of various personnel, such as related service providers, special education teachers and teaching aides or assistants, and they may be combined in different ways to meet the individual needs of your child.

    General Education with Declassification Services

    If your child has been declassified from special education, there are services that may be provided to him or her (i.e., what is called “direct” instruction), and to his or her teacher (i.e., what is called “indirect” instruction) to help your child make the transition to general education.

    These services can include instructional support, remediation, instructional modifications or individual and/or group speech or counseling. A student may only be decertified after a reevaluation.

    If your child has been declassified, the CSE will define what services, if any, your child will need during his or her first year in a full-time general education classroom in order to help him or her make a successful transition.

    Specialized Transportation Accommodations

    When your child is initially referred, the CSE must inform you that medical documentation is required for any Specialized Transportation Accommodations.

    Requests for Specialized Transportation

    Accommodations require current medical documentation from a physician that clearly states what your child’s medical condition is and why he or she requires the accommodation. For example, if you request a limited bus run or an air-conditioned bus, the request must include a description of your child’s medical condition and an explanation of why he or she requires that kind of service. Your child’s doctor must provide this documentation on an annual basis during your child’s annual review or mandated three-year evaluation in order for the accommodation to be approved.

    All recommendations for limited-time travel, bus aides, nurses, and medically-related accommodations will be reviewed by a doctor. Based on the review, the doctor will make a recommendation to the CSE prior to the CSE meeting. The doctor may recommend alterations to the original medical recommendation.

    If the CSE determines that your child requires Specialized Transportation, the type of accommodation(s) required must be added to his or her IEP.

    Additional Special Education Services

    Teaching aide or assistant Services — Some children with disabilities may require the support service of a teaching aide or assistant for all or a portion of the school day to address their management needs and to allow them to benefit from instruction. Among other things, a paraprofessional can be assigned

    • to assist your child with his/her behavior if it is dangerous to him/her or others;
    • to assist your child as he/she awaits placement in a more restrictive setting;
    • if your child’s behavior on the bus to and from school presents a danger to him/her or others.

    Teaching aides and assistants can also be assigned as sign language interpreters, oral interpreters or cued speech translators, for orientation and mobility, health services or toileting, or for other reasons.

    Support from a teaching aide or assistant assigned to the general education classroom may be necessary for your child to help adapt tasks and assignments and provide reinforcement and small group instruction. The same level of support may not be necessary in all situations for your child. For example, he or she may need support in math class but no additional support during the rest of the day. Teaching aide or assistant support as a supplementary aid and service in the general education classroom must be indicated in your child’s IEP, and the IEP must specify the number of periods a day or week the support is required. For children at the middle or high school level, the IEP must specify during what subject area(s) teaching assistant support is necessary.

    • Assistive Technology Devices and Services — Assistive Technology is any piece of equipment, product or system that is used to increase, maintain or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability (e.g., a communication device, FM unit, computer access). An Assistive Technology Service is any service that directly helps a child with a disability select, acquire, or use an assistive technology device. Any Assistive Technology or Services your child requires must be listed in his or her IEP. If you think your child needs assistive technology, you may request an assistive technology evaluation.

    • Adapted Physical Education — Adapted Physical Education is a specially designed program of developmental activities, games, sports and rhythms suited to the interests, capabilities and limitations of individual children who may not safely or successfully participate in the activities of a regular physical education program. Your child may be recommended for adapted physical education when his or her disabilities interfere with his or her ability to perform activities involved in a regular physical education program.

    • Twelve-Month School Year Services — If your child requires his or her education to continue during the summer in order to prevent significant regression, Twelve-Month School Year Services may be provided.

    • Toilet Training — Toilet Training is a short-term instructional service to help prepare your child for independence in toileting. It is provided by a paraprofessional who schedules, instructs and assists the student.

    • Parent Counseling and Training — If you, the parent, need some help understanding the special needs of your child, Parent Counseling and Training can provide you with information about your child’s development. Parent Counseling and Training is typically provided as part of the program if your child is in special classes with staffing ratios of 8:1:1, 6:1:1 and 12:1:4. These are not adult counseling services and are not intended to meet your personal or educational needs.

    • Travel Training — Travel Training services are short-term, comprehensive and specially designed instruction that teach high school students with disabilities other than blindness or visual impairments to negotiate public transportation vehicles and facilities safely and independently as they travel between home and a specific destination (usually school or the workplace).

    • Transitional Support Services — Transitional support services, such as consultation and/or training, may be provided for a short period of time to staff members working with your child as he or she moves from self-contained special classes to general education classes or less restrictive classrooms.

    Withdrawing Consent for Special Education Services

    Anytime after consenting to special education services, you may withdraw your consent for the special education services specified in your child’s IEP. The request must be in writing. When consent is withdrawn, it is for all special education and related services specified in your child’s IEP

    This includes recommendations for specialized transportation, assistive technology, program modifications, testing accommodations and the need for modified promotion criteria. Children who have been recommended to participate in alternate assessments are no longer eligible to participate in the alternate assessment program. You may not withdraw consent for only a portion of the special education and related services. In situations where you disagree with only some of the IEP recommendations, a CSE meeting can be arranged to review the student’s IEP.

    Within ten calendar days of receipt of written notice from you that withdraws consent for special education services, the school or the office of special education must send you a completed Notice of Termination of Special Education Services Due to Parental Withdrawal of Consent. The notice must be in your preferred language. This notice outlines the IEP- recommended special education services your child has most recently received and will no longer be receiving. The notice indicates the general education placement that your child will attend, and explains to you that your child will be considered a general education student at all times, including in any discipline/suspension procedures, and that CSE meetings will no longer be held for your child. The notice also provides the name of a contact person in the event you have questions or concerns.

    When a parent withdraws consent for special education services, the school or the Office of special education is not required to convene a CSE meeting or develop an IEP for your child. In addition, the school or the Office of special education is not required to amend your child’s education records to remove any references to his or her receipt of special education and related services because of the withdrawal of consent.